2013 GAP Report® – Endnotes

  1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2009) How to feed the world in 2050. Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/wsfs/docs/expert_paper/How_to_Feed_the_World_in_2050.pdf
  2. Mazzocchi, M., Shankar B. and Traill, B. (2012, October). Commodity and Trade Policy Research Working Paper No. 34. The development of global diets since 1992: influences of agri-food sector trends and policies. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy.
  3. Global Harvest Initiative. (2010) 2010 GAP Report: Measuring Global Agricultural Productivity. Washington, DC. http://www. globalharvestinitiative.org/documents/GAP%20Report.pdf
  4. The World Bank. (2013) World Development Indicators: Freshwater. http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.5
  5. The World Bank. (2013) World Development Indicators: Agricultural Inputs. http://wdi.worldbank.org/table/3.2
  6. Gustavsson, J., Cederderg, C., Sonesson, U., van Otterdijk, R. and Meybeck, A. (2011) Global Food Losses and Food Waste. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/ags/publications/GFL_web.pdf Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2013) Summary Report, Food wastage footprint: Impacts on natural resources. Natural Resources Management and Environment Department, FAO. Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3347e/i3347e.pdf
  7. Beddington J., Asaduzzaman M., Clark M., Fernandez A., Guillou M., Jahn M., Erda L., Mamo T., Van Bo N., Nobre C.A., Scholes R., Sharma R. and Wakhungu J. (2012) Achieving food security in the face of climate change: Final report from the Commission on Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change. CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS). Copenhagen, Denmark. www.ccafs.cgiar.org/commission Fischer, G. (2009, June) How do climate change and bioenergy alter the long-term outlook for food, agriculture and resource availability? Presented at the Expert Meeting on How to Feed the World in 2050 of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/012/ak972e/ak972e00.pdf
  8. Fuglie, K. and Wang, S.L. (2012) Productivity growth in global agriculture shifting to developing countries. Choices: The Magazine of Food, Farm, and Resource Issues, Volume 27, Issue 4, 4th Quarter 2012. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/143193/2/cmsarticle_273.pdf The World Bank. (2007) The World Development Report 2008, Agriculture in Development. Washington, DC. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/0,,contentMDK:23062293~pagePK:478093~piPK:477627~theSitePK:477624,00.html
  9. Fuglie, K. (2013) Branch Chief for Resource, Environmental and Science Policy, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC. Provided data for Total Factor Productivity and sources of productivity.
  10. Global Harvest Initiative. (2010) 2010 GAP Report: Measuring Global Agricultural Productivity. Washington, DC. http://www. globalharvestinitiative.org/documents/GAP%20Report.pdf
  11. Fuglie, K. (2013) Branch Chief for Resource, Environmental and Science Policy, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC. Provided data used in this report for determining Total Factor Productivity and other sources of productivity.
  12. Tweeten, L.G. and Tompson, D. (2009, February) Long-term global agricultural output supply-demand balance, and real farm and food prices. Farm Policy Journal. Volume 5, 1-5. This study was used for determining estimates of the income elasticity of food demand. PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (PwC) data were used for estimates of GDP growth and United Nations data were used for population estimates.
  13. Statement of Commissioner for Rural Economy and Agriculture at the African Union Commission, Her Excellency Mrs. Tumusiime Rhoda Peace. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. April 8, 2013
  14. The United Nations’ classification of countries based on the level of development as measured by per capita gross national income (GNI) is used. Countries are grouped as follows: those with less than $1005 GNI per capita are classified as low-income countries, those with between $1,006 and $3,975 as lower middle-income countries, those with between $3,976 and $12,275 as upper middle-income countries, and those with incomes of more than $12,276 as high-income countries. GNI per capita in dollar terms is estimated using the World Bank Atlas method, using 2010 data. See Table E in the Statistical Index for the countries in each category. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/policy/wesp/wesp_ current/2012country_class.pdf
  15. Ray, D.K., Mueller, N.D., West, P.C. and Foley, J.A. (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE. 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428Motes, W.C. (2011, January) Global food and agricultural productivity: The investment challenge. Global Harvest Initiative. Washington, DC. http://www. globalharvestinitiative.org/Documents/Motes_The_Investment_Gap_Jan_31_2011/index.html
  16. Fuglie, K., Wang, S.L. and Ball, V.E (Eds.). (2012). Productivity Growth in Agriculture: An International Perspective. Oxfordshire, UK: CAB International.
  17. Kaufmann, D. Kharas, H. and Penciakova, V. (2012) Development, Aid and Governance Indicators (DAGI). Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/development-aid-governance-indicators#/worldmap/2/12/2011/48/all
  18. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2013). World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision. CD-ROM Edition. Kaufmann, D. Kharas, H. and Penciakova, V. (2012) Development, Aid and Governance Indicators (DAGI). Brookings Institution http://www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/development-aid-governance-indicators#/worldmap/2/12/2011/48/all
  19. Gale, F. (2013). Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Provided Chinese grain production data from China Feed Production Statistics, China Feed Industry Association, 2012.
  20. Fuglie, K. (2013). Branch Chief for Resource, Environmental and Science Policy, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC. Provided data for Total Factor Productivity and sources of productivity.
  21. Beintema, N., Stads, G.J., Fuglie, K. and Heisey, P. (2010) ASTI Assessment of Global Agricultural R&D Spending, Developing Countries Accelerate Investment. International Food Policy Research Institute. Washington, D.C. http://www. ifpri.org/publication/asti-global-assessment-agricultural-rd-spending
  22. Fuglie, K. (2013). Branch Chief for Resource, Environmental and Science Policy, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Washington, DC. Provided data for Total Factor Productivity and sources of productivity.
  23. Cleary, D. (2013). The beef and soy industries in Brazil: A strategic briefing. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, DC.
  24. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2013) FAOSTAT. Rome, Italy. Accessed online August 2013. http://faostat.fao.org
  25. Cleary, D. (2013). The beef and soy industries in Brazil: A strategic briefing. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, DC.
  26. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2001). Agriculture in Brazil and Argentina: Developments and Prospects for Major Field Crops. http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/295599/wrs013b_1_.pdf
  27. Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2001). Agriculture in Brazil and Argentina: Developments and Prospects for Major Field Crops. http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/295599/wrs013b_1_.pdf
  28. Cleary, D. (2013). The beef and soy industries in Brazil: A strategic briefing. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, DC.
  29. Secretariat of Foreign Trade, SECEX. (2013). Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, Government of Brazil.
  30. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2013) FAOSTAT. Rome, Italy. Accessed online August 2013. http://faostat.fao.org
  31. National Research Council. (2010) Toward Sustainable Agricultural Systems in the 21st Century. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12832&page=R1
  32. Motes, W.C. (2011, January) Global food and agricultural productivity: The investment challenge, (Washington, DC: Global Harvest Initiative). http://www.globalharvestinitiative.org/Documents/Motes_The_Investment_Gap_Jan_31_2011/index. html
  33. Global Harvest Initiative. (2012) 2012 GAP Report: Measuring Global Agricultural Productivity. Washington, DC. http://www. globalharvestinitiative.org/index.php/gap-report-gap-index/2012-gap-report
  34. The World Bank. (2007) The World Development Report 2008, Agriculture in Development. Washington, DC. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/0,,contentMDK:23062293~pagePK:478093~piPK:477627~theSitePK:477624,00.html
  35. The World Bank. (2007) The World Development Report 2008, Agriculture in Development. Washington, DC. http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/0,,contentMDK:23062293~pagePK:478093~piPK:477627~theSitePK:477624,00.html
  36. Global Harvest Initiative (2013) International Trade and Agriculture: Supporting Value Chains to Deliver Development and Food Security. www.globalharvestinitiative.org
  37. Government of the United States of America. (2013, June) Feed the Future 2013 Progress Report: Growing Innovation, Harvesting Results. Washington, DC. http://feedthefuture.gov/sites/default/files/resource/files/feed_the_future_progress_ report_2013.pdf
  38. Information for this case study provided by TechnoServe and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. www.technoserve.org
  39. Land O’Lakes International Development (LOL) is the full-fledged international assistance unit of Land O’Lakes, Inc., a national farmer-owned food and agricultural cooperative with annual sales of $14 billion; the second-largest cooperative in the United States. http://www.idd.landolakes.com
  40. Nathaniel, C. (2013) Milk Production in a Quandary? The Sunday Leader. June 16, 2013. http://www.thesundayleader. lk/2013/06/16/milk-production-in-a-quandary
  41. Perera, B.M.A.O. and Jayasuriya, M.C.N. (2008) The dairy industry in Sri Lanka: current status and future directions for a greater role in national development. Journal of National Science Foundation Sri Lanka. 2008 36 Special Issue: 115-126. http://thakshana.nsf.ac.lk/pdf/JNSF-36(Special)/JNSF-36(Special)-115.pdf
  42. ACDI/VOCA is an economic development organization that fosters broad-based economic growth, raises living standards and creates vibrant communities. http://www.acdivoca.org
  43. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2012) Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2801e/i2801e.pdf
  44. Reckford, D. (2012) Agricultural Water Conservation in the Lower Flint River Basin of Georgia. Flint River Basin Partnership. http://www.conservationgateway.org/Files/Pages/agricultural-water-conser.aspx
  45. Biello, D. (2012) Can soil sensors save Georgia Waterways from drought? Scientific American. May 22, 2012. http://www. scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=soil-sensors-and-better-irrigation-for-georgia
  46. Information for this case study is from the Robert B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute, University of Nebraska. http://waterforfood.nebraska.edu
  47. The Montpellier Panel. (2013) Sustainable Development: A New Paradigm for African Agriculture. London, England. http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/africanagriculturaldevelopment
  48. If not otherwise noted, data for the Cereal Systems Initiative for South Asia in Bangladesh (CSISA-BD) program is from the CSISA-BD Semi-Annual Report, October 2012 – March 2013, Submitted to USAID Dhaka, Bangladesh by IRRI, WorldFish & CIMMYT (May 2013). For more information on CSISA, visit www.csisaportal.com.
  49. Participant data from personal correspondence from Timothy Russell, Chief of Party, CSISA-BD. August 28, 2013.
  50. Glover, J.D., Reganold, J.P. and Cox, C.M. (2012). Plant perennials to save Africa’s soils. Nature. Volume 489, No. 7416: 359-361 (20 September 2012).
  51. For more information on Africa RISING, visit www.africa-rising.net.
  52. Information for this case study was provided by Purdue University. http://www.purdue.edu/newsroom/research/2012/120221MurdockPICS.html
  53. Wild, C.P. and Gong, Y.Y. (2010). Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue. Carcinogenesis. Volume 31, No. 1: 71–82. Centers for Disease Control. (2004) Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning — eastern and central provinces, Kenya, January – July 2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 53, No. 34: 790-793. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5334. pdf USAID and Danya International. (2013) Aflatoxin: A Synthesis of the Research in Health, Agriculture and Trade.  Feed the Future Office of Regional Economic Integration, East Africa Regional Mission, Nairobi, Africa. http://www. aflatoxinpartnership.org/~/media/Files/Projects/Aflatoxin%20microsite/PACA%20general%20documents/Aflatoxin%20 Desk%20Study%20Final%20Report%202012.pdf Shephard, G.S. (2008). Risk assessment of aflatoxins in food in Africa. Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A, 25:10, 1246-1256.
  54. Partnership for Aflatoxin Control in Africa (PACA). (2013, July) PACA Strategy 2013-2022 – Final Draft. See www. aflatoxinpartnership.org.
  55. Wild, C.P. and Gong, Y.Y. (2010). Mycotoxins and human disease: a largely ignored global health issue. Carcinogenesis. Volume 31, No. 1: 71–82. Centers for Disease Control. (2004) Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning — eastern and central provinces, Kenya, January – July 2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 53, No. 34: 790-793. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5334. pdf Shephard, G.S. (2008). Risk assessment of aflatoxins in food in Africa. Food Additives and Contaminants. Part A, 25:10, 1246-1256.
  56. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (2012) Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2801e/i2801e.pdf
  57. Information for this case study is from the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture. http://www.iica.int/eng
  58. For more information, see Market Information Organization of the Americas at http://www.mioa.org.
  59. For more information, see the Eastern Africa Grains Council (EAGC). http://www.eagc.org
  60. Eastern Africa Grains Council. (2012). Position Paper on Recommended Moisture Content in Grains and Staple Foods for the Eastern Africa Region. (May 15, 2012). Eastern Africa Grains Council Position Paper No. 1, 2012.
  61. For more information about RATIN services, see http://www.eagc.org.
  62. ACDI/VOCA Kenya. (2010). Kenya Maize Development Programme Final Report, September 25 to June 30, 2010. USAID Cooperative Agreement Number: RFA 623-A-00-02-00096-00.
  63. Information for this case study provided by Conservation International. http://www.conservation.org

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary

The Global Agricultural Imperative

Producing More With Less

The GAP IndexTM

Spotlight on Sub-Saharan Africa: The Productivity Gap

Sources of Growth in Agricultural Output: Variation by Income

The Brazil-China Agricultural Connection

A Policy Voice

The Agricultural Value Chain

Policies in Action: Productivity Along the Value Chain

[1] Comprehensive Value Chain Programs

[2] Investments in Research, Science and Technology

[3] Building Local Capacity and Mobilizing the Private Sector in Developing Countries

Endnotes